# Framework Concepts¶

Each calculator is a node of a graph. We describe how to create a new calculator, how to initialize a calculator, how to perform its calculations, input and output streams, timestamps, and options. Each node in the graph is implemented as a Calculator. The bulk of graph execution happens inside its calculators. A calculator may receive zero or more input streams and/or side packets and produces zero or more output streams and/or side packets.

## CalculatorBase¶

A calculator is created by defining a new sub-class of the CalculatorBase class, implementing a number of methods, and registering the new sub-class with Mediapipe. At a minimum, a new calculator must implement the below four methods

• GetContract()
• Calculator authors can specify the expected types of inputs and outputs of a calculator in GetContract(). When a graph is initialized, the framework calls a static method to verify if the packet types of the connected inputs and outputs match the information in this specification.
• Open()
• After a graph starts, the framework calls Open(). The input side packets are available to the calculator at this point. Open() interprets the node configuration (see Section \ref{graph_config}) operations and prepares the calculator’s per-graph-run state. This function may also write packets to calculator outputs. An error during Open() can terminate the graph run.
• Process()
• For a calculator with inputs, the framework calls Process() repeatedly whenever at least one input stream has a packet available. The framework by default guarantees that all inputs have the same timestamp (see Section \ref{scheduling} for more information). Multiple Process() calls can be invoked simultaneously when parallel execution is enabled. If an error occurs during Process(), the framework calls Close() and the graph run terminates.
• Close()
• After all calls to Process() finish or when all input streams close, the framework calls Close(). This function is always called if Open() was called and succeeded and even if the graph run terminated because of an error. No inputs are available via any input streams during Close(), but it still has access to input side packets and therefore may write outputs. After Close() returns, the calculator should be considered a dead node. The calculator object is destroyed as soon as the graph finishes running.

The following are code snippets from CalculatorBase.h.

class CalculatorBase {
public:
...

// The subclasses of CalculatorBase must implement GetContract.
// ...
static ::MediaPipe::Status GetContract(CalculatorContract* cc);

// Open is called before any Process() calls, on a freshly constructed
// calculator.  Subclasses may override this method to perform necessary
// setup, and possibly output Packets and/or set output streams' headers.
// ...
virtual ::MediaPipe::Status Open(CalculatorContext* cc) {
return ::MediaPipe::OkStatus();
}

// Processes the incoming inputs. May call the methods on cc to access
// inputs and produce outputs.
// ...
virtual ::MediaPipe::Status Process(CalculatorContext* cc) = 0;

// Is called if Open() was called and succeeded.  Is called either
// immediately after processing is complete or after a graph run has ended
// (if an error occurred in the graph).  ...
virtual ::MediaPipe::Status Close(CalculatorContext* cc) {
return ::MediaPipe::OkStatus();
}

...
};


## Life of a calculator¶

During initialization of a MediaPipe graph, the framework calls a GetContract() static method to determine what kinds of packets are expected.

The framework constructs and destroys the entire calculator for each graph run (e.g. once per video or once per image). Expensive or large objects that remain constant across graph runs should be supplied as input side packets so the calculations are not repeated on subsequent runs.

After initialization, for each run of the graph, the following sequence occurs:

• Open()
• Process() (repeatedly)
• Close()

The framework calls Open() to initialize the calculator. Open() should interpret any options and set up the calculator’s per-graph-run state. Open() may obtain input side packets and write packets to calculator outputs. If appropriate, it should call SetOffset() to reduce potential packet buffering of input streams.

If an error occurs during Open() or Process() (as indicated by one of them returning a non-Ok status), the graph run is terminated with no further calls to the calculator’s methods, and the calculator is destroyed.

For a calculator with inputs, the framework calls Process() whenever at least one input has a packet available. The framework guarantees that inputs all have the same timestamp, that timestamps increase with each call to Process() and that all packets are delivered. As a consequence, some inputs may not have any packets when Process() is called. An input whose packet is missing appears to produce an empty packet (with no timestamp).

The framework calls Close() after all calls to Process(). All inputs will have been exhausted, but Close() has access to input side packets and may write outputs. After Close returns, the calculator is destroyed.

Calculators with no inputs are referred to as sources. A source calculator continues to have Process() called as long as it returns an Ok status. A source calculator indicates that it is exhausted by returning a stop status (i.e. MediaPipe::tool::StatusStop).

## Identifying inputs and outputs¶

The public interface to a calculator consists of a set of input streams and output streams. In a CalculatorGraphConfiguration, the outputs from some calculators are connected to the inputs of other calculators using named streams. Stream names are normally lowercase, while input and output tags are normally UPPERCASE. In the example below, the output with tag name VIDEO is connected to the input with tag name VIDEO_IN using the stream named video_stream.

# Graph describing calculator SomeAudioVideoCalculator
node {
calculator: "SomeAudioVideoCalculator"
input_stream: "INPUT:combined_input"
output_stream: "VIDEO:video_stream"
}
node {
calculator: "SomeVideoCalculator"
input_stream: "VIDEO_IN:video_stream"
output_stream: "VIDEO_OUT:processed_video"
}


Input and output streams can be identified by index number, by tag name, or by a combination of tag name and index number. You can see some examples of input and output identifiers in the example below. SomeAudioVideoCalculator identifies its video output by tag and its audio outputs by the combination of tag and index. The input with tag VIDEO is connected to the stream named video_stream. The outputs with tag AUDIO and indices 0 and 1 are connected to the streams named audio_left and audio_right. SomeAudioCalculator identifies its audio inputs by index only (no tag needed).

# Graph describing calculator SomeAudioVideoCalculator
node {
calculator: "SomeAudioVideoCalculator"
input_stream: "combined_input"
output_stream: "VIDEO:video_stream"
output_stream: "AUDIO:0:audio_left"
output_stream: "AUDIO:1:audio_right"
}

node {
calculator: "SomeAudioCalculator"
input_stream: "audio_left"
input_stream: "audio_right"
output_stream: "audio_energy"
}


In the calculator implementation, inputs and outputs are also identified by tag name and index number. In the function below input are output are identified:

• By index number: The combined input stream is identified simply by index 0.
• By tag name: The video output stream is identified by tag name “VIDEO”.
• By tag name and index number: The output audio streams are identified by the combination of the tag name AUDIO and the index numbers 0 and 1.
// c++ Code snippet describing the SomeAudioVideoCalculator GetContract() method
class SomeAudioVideoCalculator : public CalculatorBase {
public:
static ::mediapipe::Status GetContract(CalculatorContract* cc) {
cc->Inputs().Index(0).SetAny();
// SetAny() is used to specify that whatever the type of the
// stream is, it's acceptable.  This does not mean that any
// packet is acceptable.  Packets in the stream still have a
// particular type.  SetAny() has the same effect as explicitly
// setting the type to be the stream's type.
cc->Outputs().Tag("VIDEO").Set<ImageFrame>();
cc->Outputs().Get("AUDIO", 0).Set<Matrix>;
cc->Outputs().Get("AUDIO", 1).Set<Matrix>;
return ::mediapipe::OkStatus();
}


## Processing¶

Process() called on a non-source node must return ::mediapipe::OkStatus() to indicate that all went well, or any other status code to signal an error

If a non-source calculator returns tool::StatusStop(), then this signals the graph is being cancelled early. In this case, all source calculators and graph input streams will be closed (and remaining Packets will propagate through the graph).

A source node in a graph will continue to have Process() called on it as long as it returns ::mediapipe::OkStatus(). To indicate that there is no more data to be generated return tool::StatusStop(). Any other status indicates an error has occurred.

Close() returns ::mediapipe::OkStatus() to indicate success. Any other status indicates a failure.

Here is the basic Process() function. It uses the Input() method (which can be used only if the calculator has a single input) to request its input data. It then uses std::unique_ptr to allocate the memory needed for the output packet, and does the calculations. When done it releases the pointer when adding it to the output stream.

::util::Status MyCalculator::Process() {
const Matrix& input = Input()->Get<Matrix>();
std::unique_ptr<Matrix> output(new Matrix(input.rows(), input.cols()));
//    output->row(n) =  ...
return ::mediapipe::OkStatus();
}


## GraphConfig¶

A GraphConfig is a specification that describes the topology and functionality of a MediaPipe graph. In the specification, a node in the graph represents an instance of a particular calculator. All the necessary configurations of the node, such its type, inputs and outputs must be described in the specification. Description of the node can also include several optional fields, such as node-specific options, input policy and executor, discussed in Framework Architecture.

GraphConfig has several other fields to configure the global graph-level settings, eg, graph executor configs, number of threads, and maximum queue size of input streams. Several graph-level settings are useful for tuning the performance of the graph on different platforms (eg, desktop v.s. mobile). For instance, on mobile, attaching a heavy model-inference calculator to a separate executor can improve the performance of a real-time application since this enables thread locality.

Below is a trivial GraphConfig example where we have series of passthrough calculators :

# This graph named main_pass_throughcals_nosubgraph.pbtxt contains 4
# passthrough calculators.
input_stream: "in"
node {
calculator: "PassThroughCalculator"
input_stream: "in"
output_stream: "out1"
}
node {
calculator: "PassThroughCalculator"
input_stream: "out1"
output_stream: "out2"
}
node {
calculator: "PassThroughCalculator"
input_stream: "out2"
output_stream: "out3"
}
node {
calculator: "PassThroughCalculator"
input_stream: "out3"
output_stream: "out4"
}


## Subgraph¶

To modularize a CalculatorGraphConfig into sub-modules and assist with re-use of perception solutions, a MediaPipe graph can be defined as a Subgraph. The public interface of a subgraph consists of a set of input and output streams similar to a calculator’s public interface. The subgraph can then be included in an CalculatorGraphConfig as if it were a calculator. When a MediaPipe graph is loaded from a CalculatorGraphConfig, each subgraph node is replaced by the corresponding graph of calculators. As a result, the semantics and performance of the subgraph is identical to the corresponding graph of calculators.

Below is an example of how to create a subgraph named TwoPassThroughSubgraph.

1. Defining the subgraph.

# This subgraph is defined in two_pass_through_subgraph.pbtxt
# and is registered as "TwoPassThroughSubgraph"

type: "TwoPassThroughSubgraph"
input_stream: "out1"
output_stream: "out3"

node {
calculator: "PassThroughculator"
input_stream: "out1"
output_stream: "out2"
}
node {
calculator: "PassThroughculator"
input_stream: "out2"
output_stream: "out3"
}


The public interface to the subgraph consists of:

• Graph input streams
• Graph output streams
• Graph input side packets
• Graph output side packets
2. Register the subgraph using BUILD rule mediapipe_simple_subgraph. The parameter register_as defines the component name for the new subgraph.

# Small section of BUILD file for registering the "TwoPassThroughSubgraph"
# subgraph for use by main graph main_pass_throughcals.pbtxt

mediapipe_simple_subgraph(
name = "twopassthrough_subgraph",
graph = "twopassthrough_subgraph.pbtxt",
register_as = "TwoPassThroughSubgraph",
deps = [
"//mediapipe/calculators/core:pass_through_calculator",
"//mediapipe/framework:calculator_graph",
],
)

3. Use the subgraph in the main graph.

# This main graph is defined in main_pass_throughcals.pbtxt
# using subgraph called "TwoPassThroughSubgraph"

input_stream: "in"
node {
calculator: "PassThroughCalculator"
input_stream: "in"
output_stream: "out1"
}
node {
calculator: "TwoPassThroughSubgraph"
input_stream: "out1"
output_stream: "out3"
}
node {
calculator: "PassThroughCalculator"
input_stream: "out3"
output_stream: "out4"
}